Vol. 16 nº 1 - Jan/Feb/Mar de 2022
Original Article Páginas: 45 a 51

Prevalence of cognitive impairment in HIV patients: vertical and horizontal transmission

Authors Maria Rita Polo Gascón1,2; Cauê Peter da Cruz Terra1; Hestela de Lima Guerra1; Carolina Fernandes Gualqui3; Mara Cristina Souza De Lucia3; Glaucia Rosana Guerra Benute3; Luiz Augusto Marcondes Fonseca2; Jorge Casseb2,4; Jose Ernesto Vidal5; Augusto César Penalva de Oliveira5


keywords: AIDS Dementia Complex; HIV; Cognitive Dysfunction.

Antiretroviral treatment has significantly increased the survival of patients infected with HIV-1. However, with increased survival, cognitive changes associated with HIV are frequently observed in this population. The clinical manifestations of HIV changes can vary as a result of several aspects, including the virus transmission route. Several studies have pointed out premature neurological changes in vertically infected patients, while the manifestation of cognitive damage in adults may take a longer time.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of cognitive changes in patients with HIV via vertical transmission after the highly active antiretroviral therapy and the cognitive performance of these patients compared to a group of sexually infected patients.
METHODS: A total of 48 patients were evaluated, 25 with vertical transmission and 23 with sexual transmission, between May 2013 and February 2015 at the Institute of infectology Emilio Ribas. Neuropsychological tests were applied to assess cognitive performance, scales to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression, and sociodemographic questionnaire.
RESULTS: The results demonstrate that the frequency of cognitive impairment in vertically transmitted patients was higher than in sexually transmitted patients.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the deleterious effects of the HIV virus on the development of the central nervous system reverberate more strongly than in patients who acquire it after adulthood.


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