Vol. 15 nº 2 - Apr/May/Jun de 2021
Original Article Páginas: 239 a 247

Prevalence of risk factors for dementia in middle- and older- aged people registered in Primary Health Care

Authors Bruna Moretti Luchesi1,2; Beatriz Rodrigues de Souza Melo3; Priscila Balderrama1; Aline Cristina Martins Gratão3,4; Marcos Hortes Nisihara Chagas4,5; Sofia Cristina Iost Pavarini3,4; Tatiana Carvalho Reis Martins1,2

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keywords: aged, dementia, middle aged, primary prevention, Primary Health Care, risk factors.

ABSTRACT:
It is important to assess the prevalence of risk factors for dementia to slow down the progression and evolution of the disease, and to support interventions and prevention programs.
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of these factors in individuals registered in Primary Health Care in Brazil and their relationship with sex and age group.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional and quantitative study with n=300 individuals. We evaluated the prevalence of main risk factors (low education, hearing loss, high blood pressure, obesity, smoking, depression, physical inactivity, social isolation, and diabetes mellitus) and others (poor diet, alcohol use, head trauma, monolingualism, visual impairment, and sleep disorders) identified in the literature. Poisson regression was used, according to sex and age group (45-59 years/60+ years).
RESULTS: The main risk factors with the highest prevalence were physical inactivity (60.3%) and depressive symptoms and hypertension (56.7% each). Among the other factors, monolingualism (98.0%), visual impairment (84.7%), and irregular consumption of fruits (60.4%), and vegetables (53.5%) prevailed. No differences were identified between sexes. The regression analysis confirmed a significant difference for education and age group, with older individuals having a higher prevalence of low schooling.
CONCLUSION: The results can guide interventions, especially in developing countries. Practice of physical activity and healthy eating should be the focus of these interventions as they can indirectly help in reducing the prevalence of other factors. Early identification, screening and adequate treatment of depressive symptoms, high blood pressure and visual impairment can also contribute to reducing the prevalence of dementia.

 

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