Vol. 14 nº 4 - Oct/Nov/Dec de 2020
Original Article Páginas: 394 a 402

Outcomes and interventions in the elderly with and without cognitive impairment: a longitudinal study

Authors Anne Caroline Soares da Silva1; Juliana Hotta Ansai2; Natália Oiring de Castro Cezar1; Francisco Assis Carvalho Vale3; Julimara Gomes dos Santos1; Larissa Pires de Andrade1

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keywords: continuity of patient care; cognitive dysfunction; Alzheimer disease; aged

ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND: Clinical follow-up studies are necessary for a better understanding of the evolution of cognitive impairment as well as the development of better assessment and intervention tools.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether older people with preserved cognition (PC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) show differences in clinical outcomes and interventions after a 32-month period.
METHODS: One hundred twenty-four community-dwelling older people were included and classified in one of three groups (PC, MCI and mild AD). Information on clinical outcomes (deaths, new diagnoses, falls, need for assistance or changes in routine and hospitalizations) and interventions (increased use of medication, physiotherapeutic intervention, practice of physical exercise, etc.) in the 32-month period were collected by telephone or during a home visit on a single day.
RESULTS: Ninety-five participants (35 with PC, 33 with MCI and 27 with AD) were reevaluated after 32 months. The need for assistance/changes in routine was significantly higher in the AD group, especially with regard to basic activities of daily living. Unlike the other groups, the PC group did not show "other diagnoses" (urinary incontinence, prolapse, change in vision or autoimmune disease). No significant differences were found regarding other variables.
CONCLUSIONS: Older people with and without cognitive impairment exhibited differences in some clinical outcomes after 32 months, such as need for assistance or changes in their routine and new diagnoses of specific diseases. Therefore, the multidimensionality of geriatric patients should be considered when planning assessments and interventions.

 

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