Vol. 14 nº 3 - Jul/Aug/Set de 2020
Views & Reviews Páginas: 237 a 242

Moving from neurodegenerative dementias, to cognitive proteinopathies, replacing "where" by "what"...

Authors Ricardo Francisco Allegri1,2

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keywords: Alzheimer disease, proteins, frontotemporal dementia, biomarkers, dementia.

ABSTRACT:
Neurodegenerative dementias have been described based on their phenotype, in relation to selective degeneration occurring in a particular neuroanatomical system. More recently however, the term proteinopathy has been introduced to describe diseases in which one or more altered proteins can be detected. Neurodegenerative diseases can be produced by more than one abnormal protein and each proteinopathy can determine different clinical phenotypes. Specific biomarkers have now been linked to certain molecular pathologies in live patients. In 2016, a new biomarker-based classification, currently only approved for research in Alzheimer's disease, was introduced. It is based on the evaluation three biomarkers: amyloid (A) detected on amyloid-PET or amyloid- beta 42 assay in CSF; tau (T) measured in CSF as phosphorylated tau or on tau PET imaging; and neuronal injury/neurodegeneration (N), detected by total T-tau in CSF, FDG PET hypometabolism and on MRI brain scan. Results of clinical research using the ATN biomarkers at FLENI, a Neurological Institute in Buenos Aires, Argentina have, since 2011, contributed to ongoing efforts to move away from the concept of neurodegenerative dementias and more towards one of cognitive proteinopathies. Today, clinical diagnosis in dementia can only tell us "where" abnormal tissue is found but not "what" molecular mechanisms are involved.

 

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