Vol. 14 nº 3 - Jul/Aug/Set de 2020
Views & Reviews Páginas: 223 a 236

Genetics of dementia: insights from Latin America

Authors Claudia Ramos1; David Aguillon1; Christian Cordano2; Francisco Lopera1

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keywords: Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, Latin America, genetics.

ABSTRACT:
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are neurodegenerative disorders that result in a significant burden to both patients and caregivers. By 2050, the number of people with dementia in Latin America will increase 4-fold. A deep understanding of the relevant genetic factors of AD and FTD is fundamental to tackle this reality through prevention. A review of different genetic variants that cause AD or FTD in Latin America was conducted. We searched Medline and PubMed databases using the keywords "Alzheimer's disease," "frontotemporal dementia," "mutation," "America," and "Latin America," besides specific Latin American countries. Forty-five items were chosen and analyzed. PSEN1 mutations are the commonest cause of genetic early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD), followed by PSEN2 and APP mutations. Genetic FTD can be mainly explained by GRN and MAPT mutations, as well as C9orf72 G4C2 repeat expansion. APOE ε4 can modify the prevalence and incidence of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), in addition to the cognitive performance in affected carriers.

 

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