Vol. 12 nº 2 - Apr/May/Jun de 2018
Original Article Páginas: 181 a 188

Qualitative analysis and identification of pattern of errors in Clock Drawing Tests of community-dwelling older adults

Authors Barbara Spenciere; Liana Chaves Mendes-Santos; Christina Borges-Lima; Helenice Charchat-Fichman


keywords: Clock Drawing Test, qualitative analysis, older adults, screening.

The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a frequently employed screening tool with different scoring systems. Quantitative and semi-quantitative scoring systems, such as Sunderland's et al. (1989), do not discriminate different error patterns. Thus, the same score can represent a number of different neuropsychological profiles. Therefore, the use of a scoring method that emphasizes qualitative aspects to determine specific error patterns is fundamental.
OBJECTIVE: To use a qualitative scale to analyze error patterns in the CDTs of older adults who scored 5 in a previous study.
METHODS: 49 CDTs with score of 5 were analyzed using the qualitative scale. Linear regression and hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analyses were performed. RESULTS: The linear regression showed a significant association between the total score and all the error patterns of the qualitative scale. The hierarchical cluster yielded three groups. However, due to the heterogeneity observed among the groups, a non-hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to better understand the results. Three groups were determined with different neuropsychological profiles and patterns of errors.
CONCLUSION: The qualitative scoring of the CDT is important when examining and analyzing specific neuropsychological domains in older adults, especially executive functions.


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