Effects of a cognitive training program and sleep hygiene for executive functions and sleep quality in healthy elderly
Katie Moraes de Almondes1; Maria Emanuela Matos Leonardo2; Ana Maria Souza Moreira3
keywords: elderly, executive functions, sleep quality, cognitive training, sleep hygiene.
INTRODUCTION: The aging process causes changes in the sleep-wake cycle and cognition, especially executive functions. Interventions are required to minimize the impact of the losses caused by the aging process.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a cognitive training program and psychoeducation on sleep hygiene techniques for executive functions and sleep quality in healthy elderly.
METHODS: The participants were 41 healthy elderly randomized into four groups ([CG] control group, cognitive training group [CTG], sleep hygiene group [SHG] and cognitive training and hygiene group [THG]). The study was conducted in three stages: 1st - assessment of cognition and sleep; 2nd - specific intervention for each group; 3rd - post-intervention assessment.
RESULTS: The results showed that the CTG had significant improvements in cognitive flexibility tasks, planning, verbal fluency and episodic memory, gains in sleep quality and decreased excessive daytime sleepiness. The SHG also had improved sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness and significant improvements in insights, planning, attention and episodic memory. The THG had significant gains in cognitive flexibility, problem solving, verbal fluency, attention and episodic memory.
CONCLUSION: Cognitive training and sleep hygiene interventions were useful strategies for improving cognitive performance and sleep quality of healthy elderly, but there was no evidence that sessions combining cognitive training and psychoeducation on sleep hygiene enhanced the gains provided by these interventions applied individually.