Scoring systems for the Clock Drawing Test: A historical review
Bárbara Spenciere1; Heloisa Alves2; Helenice Charchat-Fichman2
keywords: Clock Drawing Test, scoring, neuropsychology, screening test.
The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a simple neuropsychological screening instrument that is well accepted by patients and has solid psychometric properties. Several different CDT scoring methods have been developed, but no consensus has been reached regarding which scoring method is the most accurate. This article reviews the literature on these scoring systems and the changes they have undergone over the years. Historically, different types of scoring systems emerged. Initially, the focus was on screening for dementia, and the methods were both quantitative and semi-quantitative. Later, the need for an early diagnosis called for a scoring system that can detect subtle errors, especially those related to executive function. Therefore, qualitative analyses began to be used for both differential and early diagnoses of dementia. A widely used qualitative method was proposed by Rouleau et al. (1992). Tracing the historical path of these scoring methods is important for developing additional scoring systems and furthering dementia prevention research.