Which factors are associated with global cognitive impairment in Wilson's disease?
Norberto Anízio Ferreira Frota1; Egberto Reis Barbosa2; Claudia Sellitto Porto3; Leandro Tavares Lucato4; Carla Rachel Ono4; Carlos Alberto Buchpiguel4; Alexandre Aluizio Costa Machado2; Paulo Caramelli5
keywords: Wilson's disease, cognitive impairment, neuropsychological tests, magnetic resonance imaging, globus pallidus.
BACKGROUND: Patients with Wilson's disease (WD) present cognitive impairment, especially in executive functions. Which other factors might be associated with global cognitive decline in these patients remains unclear.
OBJECTIVE: To assess which factors are associated with worse performance on a global cognitive test in patients with WD.
METHODS: Twenty patients with WD underwent cognitive assessment with the following tests: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Dementia Rating Scale (DRS), verbal fluency test, brief cognitive battery, clock drawing test, Frontal Assessment Battery, Stroop test, Wisconsin card sorting test, Hopper test, cubes (WAIS) and the Pfeffer questionnaire. MRI changes were quantified. Patients with poor performance on the DRS were compared to patients with normal performance.
RESULTS: Nine patients had a poor performance on the DRS. This group had lower educational level (9.11±3.58 × 12.82±3.06) and a greater number of changes on MRI (9.44±2.74 × 6.27±2.45). The presence of hyperintensity in the globus pallidus on MRI was more frequent in this group (66.6% vs 9.0%), with OR=5.38 (95% CI 0.85-33.86).
CONCLUSION: Global cognitive impairment was prevalent in this sample of patients with WD and was associated with low educational level, number of changes on MRI and MRI hyperintensity in the globus pallidus.