Vol. 10 nº 3 - Jul/Aug/Set de 2016
History Note Páginas: 254 a 258

Magendie and Luschka: Holes in the 4th ventricle

Authors Eliasz Engelhardt


keywords: cerebrospinal fluid, median opening, lateral openings, 4th ventricle, Magendie, Luschka.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a complex liquid formed mainly by the choroid plexuses. After filling the ventricular system where it circulates, CSF flows out to the subarachnoid spaces through openings in the 4th ventricle. Following numerous studies on CSF pathways, these openings were first discovered in the 19th century by two notable researchers, François Magendie and Hubert von Luschka, who described the median and lateral openings subsequently named after them. Even after the studies of Axel Key and Gustav Magnus Retzius confirming these openings, their existence was questioned by many anatomists, yet acknowledged by others. Finally gaining the acceptance of all, recognition of the holes endures to the present day. Interest in these openings may be attributed to the several congenital or acquired pathological conditions that may affect them, usually associated with hydrocephalus. We report some historical aspects of these apertures and their discoverers.


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